Louis-Nicolas Davout dies in Paris
To his own disadvantage, Napoleon never really liked Davout, who was one of the few of his marshals who shined in independent command. Davout was also the only marshal who refused to swear loyalty to the Bourbons after Napoleon’s downfall in 1814. He was underused in the 1813 campaign and on the day of Waterloo, having been appointed minister of war by Napoleon, was signing documents instead of fighting the Allies. Years later, Napoleon regretted not using Davout on the field of battle.